Vitamin D Deficiency
Last updated: November 27, 2020

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Vitamin D plays a major role in keeping us healthy by helping to regulate the metabolism of most of our body tissues. While this nutrient is sometimes referred to as the sunshine vitamin, even people living in the sunniest states in our country suffer from a lack of it. So, how is this possible?

Various factors predispose us to lack vitamin D. In our new article, we will delve into this increasingly common problem and share with you the best recommendations for avoiding hypovitaminosis D. Are you ready to learn everything there is to know about the sunshine vitamin?

Key Facts

  • Vitamin D deficiency may affect up to 50% of the world’s population, negatively impacting bone, metabolic, and cardiovascular health.
  • A poor diet and low exposure to sunlight are the primary responsible for vitamin D deficiency.
  • Various options are available to you if you decide to treat this condition with supplements. These include multivitamin preparations, fish oil, and vitamin D products.

Our Selection: The Best Products to Prevent Vitamin D Deficiency in the UK

If you plan on taking supplements to combat this condition, you will find the following section helpful. We have selected the most popular and effective products currently available on the British market. We strongly encourage you to follow the manufacturer’s recommendations. If you want to use higher doses, please do so under the supervision of a health professional.

Best Vitamin D Supplement for Vegans

Vitamin D3 is often sourced from animal products. However, this brand produces this high-quality D3 supplement from plant based extract, derived from a type of fungi, to satisfy the needs of vegans and vegetarians. This non-GMO dietary product is certified gluten, soy, yeast, lactose and diary-free. It contains no artificial colours or flavours. It is also suitable for halal and kosher.

D3 is the superior form of vitamin D. Until recently, the only vegan-friendly sources offered vitamin D2. Now this brand brings you this product, which contains 365 tablets per bottle. Therefore, it will provide you with a whole year of supplements.

Best Vitamin D3 Complex

Enjoy a high strength yet safe dose of premium quality vitamin D3 with this manufacturers D3 complex capsules. Each small and easy to swallow capsule contains 1000% daily recommended dose of D3 2000 IU. This supplement contributes to the maintenance of normal bones, teeth, muscle function and the normal functioning of the immune system. Vitamin D also contributes to the normal absorption/utilisation of calcium and phosphorus.

Unlike other vitamin D3 supplements, this is a one-of-a-kind elite series D3 complex that contains research-backed doses of other essential vitamins and minerals. These have been specially selected by their own formulation and research experts to provide a comprehensive range of healthy benefits.

Best Vitamin D3 Supplement

This best-selling product by Incite Nutrition is a potent source of vitamin D3. Each of the 400 tablets in the bottle give you 4,000 International Units (IU) of vitamin D. In fact, you’ve got over a year’s supply at a great price! Max dose vitamin D supports the normal functioning of the immune system, helps to maintain strong bones and teeth and supports muscle function.

This vitamin D3 supplement is made and manufactured in the UK with premium ingredients to the highest of standards. Smaller tablets mean less packaging, meaning that their D3 is better for the environment. You will be amazed that there is a 400 day supply in this extra compact package.

Best Fish Oil with Vitamin D

Fish oil is naturally rich in a variety of healthy and essential nutrients, and these non-GMO capsules are a fantastic way to get your RDA in vitamin D. They are made from deep-sea with cod liver oil that helps support overall good health. Each of them will give you 5μg, in addition to omega-3 fatty acids. Each bottle counts with 120 capsules at a very good price.

Seven Seas Cod Liver Oil supplements are a rich source of vitamin D. They can help during autumn and winter when vitamin D levels can be low due to less exposure to sunlight.

Best Multivitamin Supplement

Packed with micronutrients, Centrum is a complete multivitamin and is formulated to help support the nutritional needs of men and women. Micronutrients are essential vitamins and minerals that are vital for cell health and growth. They feed your body and perform hundreds of important roles nourishing and restoring you from the inside out.

This incredible 100 tablets pack gives amazing value, keeping you replenished with a range of 24 vitamins (including vitamin D) and minerals for more than 3 months. The nutrient formula for Centrum Advance contains a balanced amount of all essential vitamins. It also contains important minerals and trace elements making it an ideal supplement to your own diet.

Everything You Should Know About Vitamin D Deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency has become a real issue around the world. Experts point to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, where work and leisure occur indoors, as the main culprit for this. But is the solution really to get more sun, risking the consequences of excessive exposure? Let’s delve into this seeming dilemma!

Women sunbathing on the beach

The best way to avoid vitamin D deficiency is to expose yourself to the sun regularly but cautiously.
(Source: Dolgachov: 28508109/ 123rf.com)

The Sunshine Vitamin

Vitamin D is quite simply vital to our survival. Initially, researchers believed that it was capable of regulating the absorption of calcium and the mineralisation of the bones. Later, they found that it also had the ability to modulate the functions of the nervous, cardiovascular, and immune systems, among others (1, 2, 3):

Regulatory function Clinical benefits*
Bones: It increases calcium absorption at the intestinal level and allows the mineralisation of bone. Decreased risk of fractures.
Muscles: It promotes muscle contraction. Reduced risk of falls, which consequently reduces the risk of fractures in the elderly.
Cardiovascular: It contributes to arterial relaxation. Possible reduction of blood pressure, decreased risk of cardiovascular events.
Reproductive: Formation of estrogen-type hormones and testosterone. Lower incidence of bacterial vaginosis and pelvic floor failure.
Immune: Regulation of immunity. Lower frequency of autoimmune diseases (type multiple sclerosis), reduced probability of infection by the influenza A virus.
Nervous: Possible neuronal protection (currently under study). It may reduce the frequency of degenerative diseases (Parkinson’s, macular degeneration), depression, and dementia.
Endocrine: Modulation of insulin-type hormone production. Appetite regulator. It may promote better control of blood sugar levels and body weight.
Others: Control of cell replication. It may decrease the risk of certain types of tumours (especially colon and rectal).

*Comparison with insufficient vitamin D levels.

As you can see, maintaining healthy vitamin D levels in your blood (between 30 and 75 nanograms per milliliter in adults) is essential to keeping your body healthy (1). However, there is a lack of this nutrient in nature, with few foods containing it compared to other vitamins (such as C or B vitamins).

To overcome this difficulty, the human body has created an effective system that allows it to synthesise vitamin D from cholesterol derivatives. This chemical reaction only requires the exposure of the skin to sunlight. This is why some people call it the sunshine vitamin (2).

Recommendations and At-Risk Groups

Vitamin D belongs to the group of fat-soluble vitamins; in other words, it dissolves and is stored in fat. Paradoxically, its reserves will decrease rapidly if you don’t have a constant supply of this nutrient. Consequently, experts have determined the recommended daily allowance (RDA) needed to stay healthy (3):

Population group RDA (International Units, IU)
Babies, 0-6 months 400
Babies, 6-12 months 400
Children, 1-3 years 600
Children, 4-8 years 600
Teenagers, 9- 18 600
Adults, up to 70 years 600
Adults, over 70 years 800

Meeting these recommendations is particularly important for the groups most at risk of suffering from a deficiency. Children, teenagers, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and people over the age of 65 are considered high-risk groups when assessing the potential lack of vitamin D.

In addition, anyone who decides to cover most of their body and not expose it to sunlight should closely monitor their vitamin D levels. The same goes for people living in regions with few hours of light per day or with cloudy skies (4).

Rosa TabernerIn Diagnosis and Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency
“Not only are such deficiencies common, probably the rule, vitamin D deficiency stands implicated in a host of diseases other than cancer. The metabolic product of vitamin D is a potent, pleiotropic, repair and maintenance, secosteroid hormone that targets > 200 human genes in a wide variety of tissues, meaning it has as many mechanisms of action as genes it targets.”

Foods rich in vitamin D

Vitamin D is primarily found in dairy products, eggs, and oily fish.
(Source: Photka: 92508397/ 123rf.com)

D for Diet: Prevention Through Food

Daily sunbathing without sunscreen is an effective way of increasing your vitamin D reserves, but it comes with its share of side effects. However, you can combine more careful sun exposure with the consumption of foods rich in vitamin D, both of animal (cholecalciferol or D3) and vegetable origin (ergocalciferol or D2) (2).

Vitamin D3: Cholecalciferol is mainly found in animal products (dairy products, eggs, oily fish, and entrails). However, some lichens are also capable of producing small quantities of vitamin D3. The absorption of this type of vitamin D is superior to that of ergocalciferol, although the foods that contain it are very rich in fat and calories (25, 26).

Food (100 grams or 100 milliliters) Approximate concentration (IU) Calories
Cod liver oil 10,000 900
Salmon 760 166
Herring 680 260
Sardines 480 186
Fortified skimmed milk 332 362
Egg yolk 107 317
Entrail (beef) 16 135

Vitamin D2: Ergocalciferol is a variant of vitamin D that plants, fungi, and certain bacteria synthesise after being exposed to solar radiation. Unfortunately, this vegan alternative has proven to be less efficient than cholecalciferol in raising blood concentrations of vitamin D (26).

Food (100 grams or 100 milliliters) Approximate concentration (IU) Calories
Fortified orange juice 60 44
Soybean milk fortified with D2 50 33
Fortified rice drink 40 47
Shiitake mushrooms 25 44

If you are vegan or cannot increase your intake of vitamin D3-rich foods due to their high calorific content, you will have to combine a quality diet and sun exposure to avoid hypovitaminosis. Otherwise, you can turn to vitamin D supplements as a last resort (18).

Pros Cons
It cannot produce intoxication or overdose. Foods rich in vitamin D3 are very caloric.
Foods with vitamin D provide other benefits (omega-3, antioxidants, selenium, or vitamin E). The bioavailability of vitamin D2 is reduced.
Infant foods are often fortified with vitamin D (prevention of rickets). There is a limited number of foods rich in vitamin D2. Non-fortified vegan options are few and far between.
This type of diet can be challenging for individuals allergic to fish, milk, or soy.
Elderly or chronically ill people (e.g. Crohn’s) have a lower absorption capacity.

Taking Back Control: Supplements for Vitamin D Deficiency

If you haven’t been able to adjust your diet and can’t spend more time outside, you may want to give vitamin D supplements a go. These products contain high amounts of cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol, making them a very potent option for raising your blood levels.

These products come in different formats and doses. You can find them as capsules, but also drops and sprays that are ideal if you aren’t comfortable swallowing tablets. While injectable megadoses of vitamin D exist, they are exclusively used by health professionals.

If you follow a vegan diet, keep in mind that your body’s ability to absorb vitamin D2 supplements is inferior to cholecalciferol products. In that regard, you may want to ask your physician to adjust the dosage accordingly. Vegan D3 (from lichen) is currently used to develop supplements (27).

The use of these supplements is simple. If you plan on using them for a limited time and without medical supervision, follow the manufacturer’s instructions and recommended doses (800-1,000 IU of vitamin D3 per day). Weekly and monthly preparations may cause side effects, so their consumption needs to be under the supervision of a doctor or a nutritionist (16, 28, 29).

Pros Cons
Supplements are very effective in raising vitamin D blood levels. They can potentially be toxic at high concentrations (300,000 IU or more).
Supplementation allows you to adjust your intake. Used unsupervised and at high doses, they can increase blood calcium. Paradoxically, this could increase the risk of fractures.
They come in different dosage forms (capsules, liquid, and spray). There have been reports of drug interactions.
You can find vegan and vegetarian options. Vitamin D3 is mostly of animal origin (wool and fish).

Supplementing With Caution

Vitamin D is considered a safe supplement, and its consumption can benefit your health as long as you take it wisely. Hypervitaminosis could alter the delicate fluid and electrolyte balance of your body, producing an increase in blood calcium. This hypercalcemia could manifest itself in the form of confusion, apathy, or mental disorders (30).

Excess vitamin D in the blood can be as harmful as a lack of it. In fact, a higher incidence of falls and fractures has been found in people who consumed large doses of cholecalciferol (10,000 IU per day for years). This is why you should limit your consumption of vitamin D supplements to a maximum of 4,000 IU per day (29).

In addition, we recommend that you discuss with a health professional if you want to supplement for a period longer than three months. People with specificities (obesity, intestinal malabsorption, or diagnosed osteoporosis, among others) may need doses higher than 1,000-2,000 IU/day and should also consult a specialist.

Children under the age of 18, as well as pregnant and breastfeeding women, should supplement under strict clinical supervision. This also goes for anyone with a chronic disease (heart, liver, or kidney) and to individuals following the drug therapies listed in this table (31):

Treatment Example drugs
Antacids Aluminum salts
Antiarrhythmics Digoxin, Verapamil
Blood-thinning medication Heparin
Antihypertensives Diltiazem
Diuretics Hydrochlorothiazide
Psoriasis treatment Calcipotriol
Duodenal ulcer treatment Cimetidine

Buyer’s Guide

If you are determined to use supplements to keep vitamin D deficiency at bay, you will find the following section very helpful. We will delve into the main characteristics of vitamin D supplements; that way, you can pick those that best fit your needs.

Vitamin D Supplements

Products that exclusively consist of vitamin D (cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol) are the most widely used supplement to prevent or treat vitamin D deficiency. If you follow a vegan diet, remember to use a D2-based product and consult a nutritionist to adjust the dosage.

  • Daily use: Everyday supplements should contain moderate amounts of vitamin D (800-2,000 IU), never exceeding 4,000 IU/day. Taking them with food will increase absorption.
  • Weekly use: You can also find products with high doses of vitamin D (4,000-10,000 IU). While they are effective in raising blood levels, they have an increased risk of side effects (hypercalcemia). Do not take them without consulting a health professional beforehand.
  • Monthly use: Megadoses (100,000-300,000 IU) of vitamin D are used in strict medical settings to treat severe and symptomatic deficiencies. Administered via injections once a month, this must be medically supervised (29).

The cost of these vitamin D supplements will depend on the format, dose, raw material (lichen, sheep’s wool fat or fish oil), and brand reputation. The number of capsules or tablets will also influence the price.

Multivitamins With Vitamin D

These supplements are a great way to combine vitamin intake. However, they often contain less vitamin D than other products (50 or 75% of the RDA). If you opt for multivitamin supplements, it should complement a diet rich in D3 or D2 and careful exposure to the sun.

Young girls drinking milk

Vitamin D deficiency may predispose you to mood swings.
(Source: Ponchaisang: 94756775/ 123rf.com)

Fish Oil Supplements

The most traditional remedy to prevent vitamin D deficiency is cod liver oil. In the past, it was marketed in liquid extracts, and the taste horrified children. Today, you can find it in capsule form or with flavouring. Cod liver oil is rich in vitamins D3, E, A, and omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) (32). It can prevent and treat various nutritional deficiencies effectively and economically. Here are some of its benefits (33):

Nutrient Potential benefits
Vitamin A Antioxidant. Bone and tooth maintenance. Preservation of the retina’s function.
Vitamin E Antioxidant. Maintenance of the function of the immune system. It may prevent premature skin aging.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) Omega-3 fatty acid. Improvement of the lipid profile. Possible anti-inflammatory properties.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) Omega-3 fatty acid. Possible anti-inflammatory properties. Preservation of normal intellectual function.

Summary

Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures and growth alterations in children. This condition could also negatively affect mental and cardiovascular health. In fact, the most alarming data even link this nutritional deficiency to the appearance of tumours of the colon and rectum.

In an increasingly sedentary world, where most of us live confined in our homes and workplaces, hypovitaminosis D has become a public health problem. However, a healthy diet, cautious sunbathing, and smart supplementation will keep this issue at bay!

Do you feel more comfortable dealing with vitamin D deficiency after reading our guide? We’d love to hear your opinion, so please leave us a comment in the section below. You can also share this article on your social media!

(Featured Image Source: Baibakova: 61624725/ 123rf.com)

References (35)

1. Quesada Gómez JM, Curiel MD. Vitamin D Deficiency and Consequences for the Health of People in Mediterranean Countries. In: Vitamin D [Internet]. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2010 [2020 Apr 19]. p. 453–67.
Source

2. Nair R, Maseeh A. Vitamin D: The sunshine vitamin [Internet]. Vol. 3, Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics. Wolters Kluwer — Medknow Publications; 2012 [2020 Apr 19]. p. 118–26.
Source

3. Vitamin D – Health Professional Fact Sheet [Internet]. [2020 Apr 19].
Source

4. Adrian R Martineau. Vitamin D deficiency: people at risk need access to supplements | Implementing guidelines | Guidelines in Practice. 2015 [2020 Apr 20];2:1–6.
Source

5. Sunyecz JA. The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis [Internet]. Vol. 4, Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. Dove Press; 2008 [2020 Apr 19]. p. 827–36.
Source

6. Bhan A, Rao AD, Rao DS. Osteomalacia as a result of vitamin D deficiency [Internet]. Vol. 39, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. Elsevier; 2010 [2020 Apr 19]. p. 321–31.
Source

7. Science Museum’s History of Medicine. Rickets [Internet]. [2020 Apr 19].
Source

8. Sahay M, Sahay R. Rickets-vitamin D deficiency and dependency. Indian J Endocrinol Metab [Internet]. 2012 [2020 Apr 19];16(2):164.
Source

9. Song TJ, Chu MK, Sohn JH, Ahn HY, Lee SH, Cho SJ. Effect of vitamin D deficiency on the frequency of headaches in migraine. J Clin Neurol. 2018 Jul 1;14(3):366–73.
Source

10. Johnson K, Sattari M. Vitamin D deficiency and fatigue: an unusual presentation. Springerplus. 2015 Dec 1;4(1).
Source

11. Aguilar Shea AL, Muñoz Moreno-Arrones O, Palacios Martínez D, Vaño-Galván S. Vitamin D for daily practice. Semergen. Ediciones Doyma, S.L.; 2020.
Source

12. Reid IR, Bolland MJ. Role of vitamin D deficiency in cardiovascular disease. Vol. 98, Heart. 2012. p. 609–14.
Source

13. Papadimitriou DT. The big Vitamin D mistake [Internet]. Vol. 50, Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health. Korean Society for Preventive Medicine; 2017 [2020 Apr 18]. p. 278–81.
Source

14. Cucalón Arenal JM, Blay Cortés MG, Zumeta Fustero J, Blay Cortés V. Actualización en el tratamiento con colecalciferol en la hipovitaminosis D desde atención primaria. Med Gen y Fam [Internet]. 2019 [2020 Apr 19];8(2):68–78.
Source

15. Falls [Internet]. [2020 Apr 19].
Source

16. Hope Alberta Weiler. WHO | Vitamin D Supplementation for Infants [Internet]. World Health Organization. 2017 [2020 Apr 19].
Source

17. Harel Z, Cromer B, DiVasta AD, Gordon CM, Pitts S. Recommended vitamin D intake and management of low vitamin D status in adolescents: A position statement of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine [Internet]. Vol. 52, Journal of Adolescent Health. Elsevier USA; 2013 [2020 Apr 19]. p. 801–3.
Source

18. Haines ST, Park SK. Vitamin D supplementation: What’s known, what to do, and what’s needed [Internet]. Vol. 32, Pharmacotherapy. 2012 [2020 Apr 16]. p. 354–82.
Source

19. Vanchinathan V, Lim HW. A Dermatologist’s Perspective on Vitamin D. Mayo Clin Proc [Internet]. 2012 Apr [2020 Apr 20];87(4):372–80.
Source

20. Pallás Alonso CR. ¿Hay que hacer profilaxis con vitamina D? Pediatría Atención Primaria [Internet]. 2014 Jun [2020 Apr 20];16:75–81.
Source

21. Recomendaciones de vitamina D para la población general | Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición [Internet]. [2020 Apr 16].
Source

22. NHS. How to get vitamin D from sunlight – NHS [Internet]. How to get vitamin D from sunlight. 2019 [2020 Apr 20].
Source

23. Woo DK, Eide MJ. Tanning beds, skin cancer, and vitamin D: An examination of the scientific evidence and public health implications [Internet]. Vol. 23, Dermatologic Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010 [2020 Apr 20].
Source

24. Jódar Gimeno E. Recomendaciones sobre cómo administrar la vitamina D: guías internacionales y nacionales. Rev Osteoporos y Metab Miner. 2014 Mar;6:19–22.
Source

25. Schmid A, Walther B. Natural Vitamin D Content in Animal Products. Adv Nutr [Internet]. 2013 Jul 1 [2020 Apr 20];4(4):453–62.
Source

26. FoodData Central [Internet]. [2019 Dec 2].
Source

27. House C, Street G. Vegan & Vegetarian Vitamin D3 Ingredients. 44(0):3–6.
Source

28. Hill TR, Aspray TJ. The role of vitamin D in maintaining bone health in older people [Internet]. Vol. 9, Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease. SAGE Publications Ltd; 2017 [2020 Apr 19]. p. 89–95.
Source

29. Marcinowska-Suchowierska E, Kupisz-Urbańska M, Łukaszkiewicz J, Płudowski P, Jones G. Vitamin D Toxicity–A Clinical Perspective. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) [Internet]. 2018 Sep 20 [2020 Apr 20];9(SEP). D
Source

30. Malihi Z, Wu Z, Lawes CMM, Scragg R. Adverse events from large dose vitamin D supplementation taken for one year or longer [Internet]. Vol. 188, Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Elsevier Ltd; 2019 [2020 Apr 16]. p. 29–37.
Source

31. Vitamin D: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning [Internet]. [2020 Apr 20].
Source

32. Cortese M, Riise T, Bjørnevik K, Holmøy T, Kampman MT, Magalhaes S, et al. Timing of use of cod liver oil, a vitamin D source, and multiple sclerosis risk: The EnvIMS study. Mult Scler. 2015 Dec 1;21(14):1856–64.
Source

33. H. Stipanuk M, A. Caudill M. Biochemical, physiological, and molecular aspects of human nutrition. 3rd edition. Elsevier; 2013. 948 p.
Source

34. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Effect of combined administration of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Orthop Sci [Internet]. 2000 [2020 Apr 20];5(6):546–51.
Source

35. Van Ballegooijen AJ, Pilz S, Tomaschitz A, Grübler MR, Verheyen N. The Synergistic Interplay between Vitamins D and K for Bone and Cardiovascular Health: A Narrative Review [Internet]. Vol. 2017, International Journal of Endocrinology. 2017 [2020 Apr 20]. p. 1–12.
Source

Why you can trust me?

Review article
Quesada Gómez JM, Curiel MD. Vitamin D Deficiency and Consequences for the Health of People in Mediterranean Countries. In: Vitamin D [Internet]. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2010 [2020 Apr 19]. p. 453–67.
Go to source
Review article
Nair R, Maseeh A. Vitamin D: The sunshine vitamin [Internet]. Vol. 3, Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics. Wolters Kluwer — Medknow Publications; 2012 [2020 Apr 19]. p. 118–26.
Go to source
Official website
Vitamin D – Health Professional Fact Sheet [Internet]. [2020 Apr 19].
Go to source
Clinical Practice Guidelines
Adrian R Martineau. Vitamin D deficiency: people at risk need access to supplements | Implementing guidelines | Guidelines in Practice. 2015 [2020 Apr 20];2:1–6.
Go to source
Review article
Sunyecz JA. The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis [Internet]. Vol. 4, Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. Dove Press; 2008 [2020 Apr 19]. p. 827–36.
Go to source
Review article
Bhan A, Rao AD, Rao DS. Osteomalacia as a result of vitamin D deficiency [Internet]. Vol. 39, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. Elsevier; 2010 [2020 Apr 19]. p. 321–31.
Go to source
Official website
Science Museum’s History of Medicine. Rickets [Internet]. [2020 Apr 19].
Go to source
Review article
Sahay M, Sahay R. Rickets-vitamin D deficiency and dependency. Indian J Endocrinol Metab [Internet]. 2012 [2020 Apr 19];16(2):164.
Go to source
Clinical study
Song TJ, Chu MK, Sohn JH, Ahn HY, Lee SH, Cho SJ. Effect of vitamin D deficiency on the frequency of headaches in migraine. J Clin Neurol. 2018 Jul 1;14(3):366–73.
Go to source
Clinical case
Johnson K, Sattari M. Vitamin D deficiency and fatigue: an unusual presentation. Springerplus. 2015 Dec 1;4(1).
Go to source
Semergen Recommendations
Aguilar Shea AL, Muñoz Moreno-Arrones O, Palacios Martínez D, Vaño-Galván S. Vitamin D for daily practice. Semergen. Ediciones Doyma, S.L.; 2020.
Go to source
Review article
Reid IR, Bolland MJ. Role of vitamin D deficiency in cardiovascular disease. Vol. 98, Heart. 2012. p. 609–14.
Go to source
Review article
Papadimitriou DT. The big Vitamin D mistake [Internet]. Vol. 50, Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health. Korean Society for Preventive Medicine; 2017 [2020 Apr 18]. p. 278–81.
Go to source
Clinical guide
Cucalón Arenal JM, Blay Cortés MG, Zumeta Fustero J, Blay Cortés V. Actualización en el tratamiento con colecalciferol en la hipovitaminosis D desde atención primaria. Med Gen y Fam [Internet]. 2019 [2020 Apr 19];8(2):68–78.
Go to source
Official website OMS
Falls [Internet]. [2020 Apr 19].
Go to source
Official website OMS
Hope Alberta Weiler. WHO | Vitamin D Supplementation for Infants [Internet]. World Health Organization. 2017 [2020 Apr 19].
Go to source
Medical Society Statement
Harel Z, Cromer B, DiVasta AD, Gordon CM, Pitts S. Recommended vitamin D intake and management of low vitamin D status in adolescents: A position statement of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine [Internet]. Vol. 52, Journal of Adolescent Health. Elsevier USA; 2013 [2020 Apr 19]. p. 801–3.
Go to source
Review article
Haines ST, Park SK. Vitamin D supplementation: What’s known, what to do, and what’s needed [Internet]. Vol. 32, Pharmacotherapy. 2012 [2020 Apr 16]. p. 354–82.
Go to source
Review article
Vanchinathan V, Lim HW. A Dermatologist’s Perspective on Vitamin D. Mayo Clin Proc [Internet]. 2012 Apr [2020 Apr 20];87(4):372–80.
Go to source
Expert recommendations
Pallás Alonso CR. ¿Hay que hacer profilaxis con vitamina D? Pediatría Atención Primaria [Internet]. 2014 Jun [2020 Apr 20];16:75–81.
Go to source
Expert recommendations
Recomendaciones de vitamina D para la población general | Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición [Internet]. [2020 Apr 16].
Go to source
Official website NHS
NHS. How to get vitamin D from sunlight – NHS [Internet]. How to get vitamin D from sunlight. 2019 [2020 Apr 20].
Go to source
Review article
Woo DK, Eide MJ. Tanning beds, skin cancer, and vitamin D: An examination of the scientific evidence and public health implications [Internet]. Vol. 23, Dermatologic Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010 [2020 Apr 20].
Go to source
Expert recommendations
Jódar Gimeno E. Recomendaciones sobre cómo administrar la vitamina D: guías internacionales y nacionales. Rev Osteoporos y Metab Miner. 2014 Mar;6:19–22.
Go to source
Review article
Schmid A, Walther B. Natural Vitamin D Content in Animal Products. Adv Nutr [Internet]. 2013 Jul 1 [2020 Apr 20];4(4):453–62.
Go to source
Official website
FoodData Central [Internet]. [2019 Dec 2].
Go to source
Brochure
House C, Street G. Vegan & Vegetarian Vitamin D3 Ingredients. 44(0):3–6.
Go to source
Review article
Hill TR, Aspray TJ. The role of vitamin D in maintaining bone health in older people [Internet]. Vol. 9, Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease. SAGE Publications Ltd; 2017 [2020 Apr 19]. p. 89–95.
Go to source
Review article
Marcinowska-Suchowierska E, Kupisz-Urbańska M, Łukaszkiewicz J, Płudowski P, Jones G. Vitamin D Toxicity–A Clinical Perspective. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) [Internet]. 2018 Sep 20 [2020 Apr 20];9(SEP). D
Go to source
Clinical study
Malihi Z, Wu Z, Lawes CMM, Scragg R. Adverse events from large dose vitamin D supplementation taken for one year or longer [Internet]. Vol. 188, Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Elsevier Ltd; 2019 [2020 Apr 16]. p. 29–37.
Go to source
Official website
Vitamin D: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning [Internet]. [2020 Apr 20].
Go to source
Clinical study
Cortese M, Riise T, Bjørnevik K, Holmøy T, Kampman MT, Magalhaes S, et al. Timing of use of cod liver oil, a vitamin D source, and multiple sclerosis risk: The EnvIMS study. Mult Scler. 2015 Dec 1;21(14):1856–64.
Go to source
Book
H. Stipanuk M, A. Caudill M. Biochemical, physiological, and molecular aspects of human nutrition. 3rd edition. Elsevier; 2013. 948 p.
Go to source
Clinical study
Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Effect of combined administration of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Orthop Sci [Internet]. 2000 [2020 Apr 20];5(6):546–51.
Go to source
Review article
Van Ballegooijen AJ, Pilz S, Tomaschitz A, Grübler MR, Verheyen N. The Synergistic Interplay between Vitamins D and K for Bone and Cardiovascular Health: A Narrative Review [Internet]. Vol. 2017, International Journal of Endocrinology. 2017 [2020 Apr 20]. p. 1–12.
Go to source
Reviews